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WhatsApp Introduction to Cyber Crimes in India Crime, in whatever forms it is, directly or indirectly, always affects the society. Such crimes where use of computers coupled with the use of Internet is involved are broadly termed as Cyber Crimes.
One legislation that deals with the offences related to such crimes in India is Information Technology Act,which was also further amended in the form of IT Amendment Act, If looked into practicality, it is not at all easy to define this term.
In order to define such an offense, when the nature of such offense is seen, it is a combination of crime and computer. By looking at the working definition of cybercrime, one can reach a conclusion that cyber law is a term which is related to all the legal issues involving computer and Internet.
It is even more difficult to come up with a definition for the term cyber law as it is an intersection of various fields. It involves privacy issues, jurisdiction issues, intellectual property rights issues and a number of other legal questions.
In India, what can basically be termed as cyber law are the IT act and its amended version in the form of the IT Amendment act, The Information Technology Act, basically deals with the legal recognition of electronic documents and that of digital signatures.
This act also deals with Justice dispensation systems for various cyber crimes. The act was widely criticised on various fronts and due this criticism detailed amendments were brought in the form of IT Amendment Act, Major of such amendments were the focus on data privacy and information security.
Even though legal recognition of digital signatures was already included under the original Act ofbut the Amendment Act, made the digital signature technology-neutral. Along with, the defining of reasonable security practices to be followed by the Corporate, the role of intermediaries was also redefined.
Offences like child pornography and cyber terrorism were also included is the forms of cyber crimes.
Cyber terrorism has been made a heinous cyber crime under this Act and has been defined in the widest possible terms and made punishable with imprisonment which may extend to imprisonment for life and fine.
An important change that has been brought forth by the Amendment Act is that the new amendment has replaced Section 43 with Section This section has further been widened in the form of Sections 66A to 66F.
Such offences can be punished with imprisonment for 3 years or fine. Similar is the punishment under section 66D for cheating by personation through computer resource or a communication device.
This Section covers a wide range of offences which can be termed as terrorism; Such as, any act denying access to any authorised person to access the computer in order to hamper the unity, integrity, security or sovereignty of the nation.
Further, this section also includes the acts of access to a commuter resource without authorisation. It also covers such acts which can lead to any injury to any person or result in damage or destruction of any property, while trying to contaminate the computer through any virus like Trojan etc.
All the offences that are covered under this Section can be punished with life imprisonment. Very importantly, the offences which are covered under section 66 are cognizable and non-bailable. The major transformation from section 43 of the original act to Section 66 of the Amendment Act is that, that all the offences that were covered under Section 43 gave rise to civil liability which had its remedy in either compensation or damages.
But under Section 66 of the Amendment Act if such act is done with criminal intention that is mens rea, then it will attract criminal liability having remedy in imprisonment or fine or both.
Moreover, under Sections 71, 72, 73 of the Information Technology Act some acts or omissions have been made criminally liable with strict liability e. Penalty for breach of confidentiality and privacy, penalty for misrepresentation etc. Section 67 of the original Act dealt with publishing or transmitting obscene material in electronic form but the scope of this section was widened by the amendment which included child pornography under section B and also the act of retention of records by the intermediaries.
And such offences under section A will be punished with conviction of a term up to 3 years and fine of Rs. But for offence under section B the provision is for stricter conviction which is for 5 years and fine of Rs.
To conclude it can be said that, it has been provided in the preamble of the Information Technology Act that this act was passed in order to give legal recognition for transactions done through electronic means, and to improve further, this act has also made amendments to the Indian Penal CodeIndian Evidence ActThe Bankers Books of Evidence Actand the Reserve Bank of India Act in order to further the same objective.
This act has defined various offences and also has laid down certain penalties as well. This act in a way has characterised the cyber crimes, which were earlier unknown to general public in India. This Act has made Cyber offences to be investigated only by a Police Officer not below the rank of the Inspector nowDeputy Superintendent of Police earlier.
Even though this piece of legislation has proved to be a big leap in the field of cyber crimes, there still is a need for further changes which can improve its efficacy such as there is lack of effective mechanism for the appropriate retention of electronic evidence.
So, an effective methodology in that regard can be chalked out.Social Issues in India. Introduction: Social issues (also social problem, social evil, and social conflict) refers to any undesirable condition that is opposed either by the whole society or by a section of the society.
It is an unwanted social condition, often objectionable, the continuance of which is harmful for the society. Is poverty the mother of crime? Empirical evidence of the impact of socioeconomic factors on crime in India Ashish Bharadwaj Introduction Crime undoubtedly is prevalent everywhere in all countries in multifarious forms.
Jun 12, · The father of one of last week's gang-rape victims covers his face as he mourns in Katra Shahadatgunj in Badaun, India's Uttar Pradesh state. Meanwhile crimes against women in .
Violence against Women in India Essay 5 ( words) Violence against women in India is very old social issue which has taken its root deeply to the societal norms and economic dependence. This issue of violence against women come forth time to time in the form of brutal gang-rape, sexual harassment at work place, acid attack, etc.
Crimes of the Powerful: An introduction is the first textbook to bring together and show the symbiotic relationships between the related fields of state crime, white-collar crime, corporate crime, financial crime, organized crime, and environmental crime.
Violence against Women in India Ms.
R. Kalaiyarasi Assistant Professor, SFR College for women, Sivakasi I. Introduction Women in India have always been issues of concern. The folks and society at large consider women as Even in India the issue continues unabated creating many hassle and challenges for the social growth.
The age old cultural.