Like her siblings, Aeetes and Kirke Circeshe was a skilled practitioner of witchcraft pharmakeia.
It seems certain, however, that the word dog was also thrown at the first Cynics as an insult for their shameless rejection of conventional manners, and their decision to live on the streets.
Diogenes, in particular, was referred to as the "Dog",  a distinction he seems to have revelled in, stating that "other dogs bite their enemies, I bite my friends to save them.
There are four reasons why the Cynics are so named. First because of the indifference of their way of life, for they make a cult of indifference and, like dogs, eat and make love in public, go barefoot, and sleep in tubs and at crossroads. The second reason is that the dog is a shameless animal, and they make a cult of shamelessness, not as being beneath modesty, but as superior to it.
The third reason is that the dog is a good guard, and they guard the tenets of their philosophy. The fourth reason is that the dog is a discriminating animal which can distinguish between its friends and enemies. So do they recognize as friends those who are suited to philosophy, and receive them kindly, while those unfitted they drive away, like dogs, by barking at them.
Although there was never an official Cynic doctrine, the fundamental principles of Cynicism can be summarized as follows: Eudaimonia is achieved by living in accord with Nature as understood by human reason. Examples include Diogenes' practice of living in a tub and walking barefoot in winter.
The Cynics adopted Heraclesshown here in this gilded bronze statue from the second century AD, as their patron hero. Cynics were in fact to live in the full glare of the public's gaze and be quite indifferent in the face of any insults which might result from their unconventional behaviour.
The Stoic Apollodorus writing in the 2nd century BC stated that "Cynicism is the short path to virtue. History of Cynicism[ edit ] Bust of Antisthenes The classical Greek and Roman Cynics regarded virtue as the only necessity for happiness, and saw virtue as entirely sufficient for attaining it.
They sought to free themselves from conventions; become self-sufficient; and live only in accordance with nature. They rejected any conventional notions of happiness involving money, powerand fameto lead entirely virtuous, and thus happy, lives.
Emphasis on this aspect of their teachings led, in the late 18th and early 19th centuries,  to the modern understanding of cynicism as "an attitude of scornful or jaded negativity, especially a general distrust of the integrity or professed motives of others.
In the early 6th century BC, Anacharsisa Scythian sage, had combined plain living together with criticisms of Greek customs in a manner which would become standard among the Cynics. However, the most immediate influence for the Cynic school was Socrates.
Although he was not an ascetic, he did profess a love of virtue and an indifference to wealth,  together with a disdain for general opinion. Symbolisms[ edit ] Cynics were often recognized in the ancient world by their apparel - an old cloak and a staff. The cloak came as an allusion to Socrates and his manner of dress, while the staff was to the club of Heracles.
These items became so symbolic of the Cynic vocation that ancient writers accosted those who thought that donning the Cynic garb would make them suited to the philosophy. Originally it was expected that one carried a sword while in the city; However, a transition to spears, and then to staffs occurred until wearing any weapon in the city became a foolish old custom.
Antisthenes The story of Cynicism traditionally begins with Antisthenes c. About 25 years his junior, Antisthenes was one of the most important of Socrates' disciples. I have enough to eat till my hunger is stayed, to drink till my thirst is sated; to clothe myself as well; and out of doors not [even] Callias there, with all his riches, is more safe than I from shivering; and when I find myself indoors, what warmer shirting do I need than my bare walls?
He originally went to Athens, fleeing his home city, after he and his father, who was in charge of the mint at Sinopegot into trouble for falsifying the coinage. He is notable because he renounced a large fortune to live a life of Cynic poverty in Athens. However, with the rise of Stoicism in the 3rd century BC, Cynicism as a serious philosophical activity underwent a decline,   and it is not until the Roman era that Cynicism underwent a revival.
The rise of Imperial Romelike the Greek loss of independence under Philip and Alexander three centuries earlier, may have led to a sense of powerlessness and frustration among many people, which allowed a philosophy which emphasized self-sufficiency and inner-happiness to flourish once again.
In the 2nd century AD, Lucian, whilst pouring scorn on the Cynic philosopher Peregrinus Proteus nevertheless praised his own Cynic teacher, Demonaxin a dialogue. Early Christian asceticism may have been influenced by Cynicism.
Some scholars have argued that the Q documenta hypothetical common source for the gospels of Matthew and Lukehas strong similarities to the teachings of the Cynics. The city of Gadaraonly a day's walk from Nazarethwas particularly notable as a centre of Cynic philosophy,  and Mack has described Jesus as a "rather normal Cynic-type figure.
Christian writers would often praise Cynic poverty,  although they scorned Cynic shamelessness: Augustine stating that they had, "in violation of the modest instincts of men, boastfully proclaimed their unclean and shameless opinion, worthy indeed of dogs.Roman architecture and Greek architecture are strikingly similar.
The mythology is nearly the same, though the names are different, both sets of Gods reside on Mount Olympus. However, we need only look to the pages of Rome’s own mythology for further insight into the Greek influences on Rome.
In 29 B.C., Publius Vergilius Maro, better. Coin: Coin, a piece of metal or, rarely, some other material (such as leather or porcelain) certified by a mark or marks upon it as being of a specific intrinsic or exchange value. The use of cast-metal pieces as a medium of exchange is very ancient and probably developed out of the use in commerce of.
Roman Characteristics. Mighty Rome! Conqueror of Gaul and Carthage, of Greece and Egypt, mistress of the Western world through six centuries, capital of the mighty Caesars, unchallenged home of grandeur, spectacle, and magnificence, splendid with the art plundered from a hundred enslaved peoples, giver of laws and morals and military science to all the West.
The Greek and Roman Influence over Modern America The Greeks and the Romans were among the most influential societies in the history of the world. Evidence of Greek or Roman influence can be found in almost every culture or country that has ever existed.
Though both cultures were different in. The Influence of The Roman Empire. Many aspects of today's society have been affected by ancient Rome.
Creation of law, development of democratic government practices, influences in language, literature, art, infrastructure, and city-planning are all areas where the influences of Roman .
Greek and Roman Governments The Greek democratic and Roman republic governments each had their own positive and negative aspects making them similar, yet exclusively different.
Both have had tremendous influences on governments in our modern world. Rome was a republic where the leaders were chosen through voting, while Greece practiced a more direct democracy in which the citizens .