Just over a century later, the Dutch and English established trading outposts on the subcontinent, with the first English trading post set up at Surat in The decline of the Mughal Empire in the first half of the eighteenth century provided the British with the opportunity to establish a firm foothold in Indian politics.
Administration and social conditions Government In Armenia adopted a new constitution, replacing the Soviet-era constitution that had been in force from The document establishes legislative, executiveand judicial branches of goverment and provides for a strong executive.
A number of basic rights and freedoms of citizens are enumerated. Armenia is a unitary multiparty republic. Legislative authority is vested in a member National Assembly. Members are elected to four-year terms.
The legislature has the authority to approve the budget, ratify treaties, and declare war. The president is the head of state and is elected directly to a maximum of two consecutive five-year terms.
The president appoints the cabinet and members of the high courts subject to approval by the legislatureserves as commander in chief of the armed forces, and has broad authority to issue decrees.
The prime minister is the head of government and is appointed by the president with the approval of the National Assembly. The judiciary consists of trial courts, appellate courts, a Court of Cassation the highest appellate courtand a nine-member Constitutional Court, which determines the constitutionality of legislation and executive decrees.
Armenia is divided into numerous oblasti provinces.
Local authority at the community level is held by mayors or village elders. During the Soviet period political life was directed by the Communist Party of Armenia, which was controlled by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Major political parties now include the Armenian National Movement, a moderate nationalist party that has governed Armenia since independence; the Armenian Revolutionary Federation Dashnaktsutyunwhich ruled Armenia during the brief period of independence before the Soviet takeover; and the Democratic Party of Armenia, the successor to the Communist Party.
Armenia was a founding member of the Commonwealth of Independent States. In Armenia joined the United Nations. Armed forces and security The Armenian military, formed partly out of forces that had belonged to the Soviet Union, includes an army and an air force.
Military service is compulsory, though draft evasion is common. The Ministry of Internal Affairs controls the regular Armenian police force.
Organized crime increased sharply during the s. Education Countrywide eight-year schooling has become the standard. There are trade schools, secondary specialized educational establishments, and institutes and colleges.
Establishments of higher learning include Yerevan State University; polytechnical, medical, agricultural, pedagogicaland theatrical institutes; and a conservatory.
Health and welfare Medical treatment in hospitals and clinics is free of charge for all citizens, being supported, like education, by taxation. The government provides modest benefits to the elderly, the unemployed, and parents of young children.
Cultural life Armenian written literature began in the 5th century ad, and monasteries became the principal centres of intellectual life. The first great Armenian poet 10th century was St.
Gregory Narekatzi, renowned for his mystical poems and hymns. During the 16th to 18th century, popular bards, or troubadours, called ashugharose; outstanding among them were Nahapet Kuchak and, especially, Aruthin Sayadian, called Sayat-Nova d. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Hakob Paronian and Ervand Otian were notable satirical novelists, and Grigor Zohrab wrote realist short stories.
Paronian was also a comic playwright, whose plays still entertain Armenian audiences. The most celebrated novelist was Hakob Meliq-Hakobian, called Raffi, and perhaps the best dramatist of recent times was Gabriel Sundukian d.
The country boasts a State Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet, several drama theatres, theatres for children, orchestras, a national dance company, and the Yerevan film studios, which produce feature, documentary, and science films.
The traditional folk arts, especially singing, dancing, and artistic crafts, are popular. The 20th-century Armenian composer Aram Khachaturian achieved worldwide renown. The public libraries include the A. Myasnikyan State Public Library and the Matenadaran archives in Yerevan, which contain 10, Armenian manuscripts, the largest collection in the world.
There are also a number of museums, including the State Historical Museum of Armenia.Social Issues» Poverty in India Poverty in India. According to a recent Indian government committee constituted to estimate poverty, nearly 38% of India’s population ( million) is monstermanfilm.com report is based on new methodology and the figure is 10% higher than the present poverty estimate of %.
India After Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy [Ramachandra Guha] on monstermanfilm.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Amagisterial account of the pains, the struggles, the humiliations, and the glories .
Custom Search Country Studies Index. Welcome to Indian Council of Social Science Research.
Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) was established in the year of by the Government of India to promote research in social sciences in the country.
Here is the topicwise collection of last five years' UPSC Mains question Papers for General Studies Paper-1, including analysis of the latest paper.
India is the name given to the vast peninsula which the continent of Asia throws out to the south of the magnificent mountain ranges that stretch in a sword like curve across the southern border.