Background How I came to be involved My wife has a little brother confined to an electric wheel chair who suffers from Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy ; an incurable fatal disease that lessens the quality of life of not only the patient but their whole family. After being assured by medical experts that the disease was incurable and would result in death before adulthood, imagine the surprise of my in-laws when a man with no scientific background at all who had vaguely known the family from years ago, suddenly turned up on their door step out of the blue, announcing that he could offer them hope. This hope came in the form of an audiocassette entitled 'Dead Doctors Don't Lie'; the recording of a lecture given by a supposed Nobel Prize nominee called Dr Joel Wallach, who tells of how he used to be a veterinarian pathologist who single handedly discovered that all diseases are simply the result of a nutritional deficiency; however the medical establishment wouldn't listen to him due to financial interests in drugs and surgery.
Background Hepatic fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of fibrotic connective tissue resulting from prolonged inflammation and progressive scarring of the liver due to a sustained wound-healing response to alcohol or nonalcohol-induced liver injury nonalcoholic liver disease includes, but not limited to, hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections.
The increased fibrosis and liver stiffness reduces blood flow through the liver, which leads to hardening and death of liver cells. Other chronic liver diseases include alcoholic liver disease, chronic hepatitis B, non-alcoholic steatosis, and chronic viral hepatitis B. Liver biopsy is considered the gold standard for diagnosis and management of chronic liver disease.
However, it is an invasive procedure that may result in complications. For that reason, non-invasive hepatic fibrosis tests are being introduced.
Examples of these tests include, but may not be limited to, the following: Serum Markers of Hepatic Fibrosis Liver fibrosis serum panels are blood serum laboratory tests that have been developed as an alternative to liver biopsy to purportedly determine the extent of liver damage that has occurred in individuals with liver disease, such as hepatitis C virus HCV.
Biochemical marker combinations are being developed as alternatives to liver biopsy in patients with chronic hepatitis C and other chronic liver diseases, including chronic hepatitis B, alcoholic liver disease, or non-alcoholic steatosis. Non-invasive tests are being developed to replace liver biopsy, and thus avoid the risk of biopsy-related adverse events.
Non-invasive tests also have the potential to avoid limitations of liver biopsy, including the risk of sampling errors and inter- and intra-pathologist variability. The FibroSpect II uses a combination of components in the fibrogenic cascade, such as hyaluronic acid, TIMP-1 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinaseand alphamacroglobulin.
The test is intended to differentiate mild fibrosis from more severe disease. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD fibrosis score is based on analytes that are supposedly individually useful for evaluating patients with liver disease.
Age and body mass index BMI are also used to calculate the fibrosis score. Rossi et al reported on the results of FibroTest scores of patients with hepatitis C. Of these, 57 had FibroTest scores either less than 0.
In other words, discrepancies with the biopsy gold standard were found in one-fifth of patients. There are no prospective clinical outcome studies of the HCV-FibroSure in the management of patients with hepatitis C or other chronic liver diseases.
An National Institutes of Health Consensus Statement on Management of Hepatitis C NIH, concluded that liver biopsy is useful in defining baseline abnormalities of liver disease and in enabling patients and healthcare providers to reach a decision regarding antiviral therapy.
The NIH Consensus Statement concludes that noninvasive tests are not adequate substitutes for liver biopsy. Various noninvasive tests of hepatic fibrosis have been examined for monitoring patients with chronic hepatitis C virus HCV infection. These include routinely available laboratory tests, such as liver- associated chemistries, platelet count, and prothrombin time, as well as specific serum markers of fibrosis and inflammation not currently widely available or well validated.
No single test or panel of serologic markers can provide an accurate assessment of intermediate stages of hepatic fibrosis. Similarly, quantitative tests of liver function and radiologic imaging of the liver are sensitive for diagnosing advanced cirrhosis but are not useful in assessing hepatic fibrosis and early cirrhosis.
In a review on newer markers for hepatocellular carcinoma, Marrero and Lok stated that there is a scarcity of longitudinal studies evaluating the ability of biomarkers to detect pre-clinical disease.
There is an urgent need for novel biomarkers for the detection of early hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hyaluronic acid, a serum marker for severe hepatic fibrosis, has been reported to have a high diagnostic performance in assessing the severity of hepatic fibrosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease.
In this issue, a non-invasive diagnostic model including hyaluronic acid was shown to have excellent performance in excluding the presence of medium to large esophageal varices in severe alcohol abusers.
Based on current evidence, the strategy of using a non-invasive diagnostic model together with a serum marker for severe hepatic fibrosis may improve cost-benefit in the prevention of variceal hemorrhage among patients with alcoholic liver disease.
Evidence based guidelines on the management of hepatitis C from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases Strader et al, stated: Until sensitive serum markers can be developed that will define all stages of fibrosis and mirror the information derived from liver biopsy, the procedure remains the only means of defining the severity of damage from HCV infection in many patients".
Serum gamma glutamyltransferase GGT is elevated in individuals with acute and chronic alcohol toxicity. Wilson et al stated that although most HCV infections are acquired by injection drug use, prospective data on the progression of liver fibrosis are sparse. In this study, baseline liver biopsies were obtained on a random sample of out of 1, HCV-positive injection drug users IDUs.
Subjects were followed biannually, with a second biopsy offered to those eligible. Paired biopsies were scored 0 to 6 modified Ishak scoresignificant fibrosis was defined as score 3 or greater, and progression of fibrosis was defined as an increase 2 or more units or clinical evidence of end-stage liver disease.
Predictive values of blood markers FibroSure, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet-ratio index APRI and alanine aminotransferase ALT were assessed for detection of contemporaneous and future liver fibrosis. Even initial biopsy result had only a The authors concluded that significant liver fibrosis and progression were detected in some, but not most, IDUs in this cohort.
In this setting with low fibrosis prevalence, FibroSure, ALT, and APRI tests predict insignificant fibrosis; however, further work is needed to find non-invasive markers of significant liver fibrosis. Nourani and Pockros noted that biochemical markers are a potentially useful alternative to liver biopsy in patients with chronic hepatitis C aged 65 years and older.Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease characterized by the buildup of thick, sticky mucus that can damage many of the body's organs.
The disorder's most common signs and symptoms include progressive damage to the respiratory system and chronic digestive system problems.
Cystic Fibrosis Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common, life-shortening genetic disease in The gene that causes the disease has now been identified and sequenced. Whom does it affect?
Epidemiology, prevalence, economic burden, vulnerable populations Cystic fibrosis affects at least 30, people in the United States; between Epidemiology of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in individuals with cystic fibrosis. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are increasingly being isolated from the sputum of adults and children with cystic fibrosis (CF), both in North America and in Europe.1–17 Estimates of the prevalence of NTM in the CF population have ranged from % in the earliest study reported in to % in a review.
This article covers diseases affecting our moods apart from or in addition to hypoglycemia. To investigate non-hypoglycemic factors, it is best to consult a Clinical Nutritionist or a Nutritional Doctor who are able to carry out the proper biochemical test to pinpoint the cause of your mood disorder.
Cystic Fibrosis Causes. Cystic Fibrosis Genetics; Living with Cystic Fibrosis. Cystic Fibrosis-related Diabetes (CFRD) the person is a CF carrier, but when two faulty CFTR genes, the patient develops cystic fibrosis.
Cystic Fibrosis Statistics in the USA. and research on the topic suggests that the prevalence of CF is rare. May 22, · Cystic fibrosis (SIS-tik fi-BRO-sis), or CF, is an inherited disease of the secretory (see-KREH-tor-ee) glands.
Secretory glands include glands that make mucus and sweat. "Inherited" means the disease is passed from parents to children through genes.