The origin and impact of the scripture in forty two sections in china

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The origin and impact of the scripture in forty two sections in china

References to early Chinese Buddhism in the histories, however, contain hagiographical elements and are not necessarily reliable or accurate.


These include references to how Emperor Ming of Han dreamt of Buddha and the persecution of King Liu Yingwho was denounced and exiled for his religious beliefs. Nevertheless, historians generally agree that by the middle of the 1st century, the religion had penetrated to areas north of the Huai River.

By the end of the second century, a prosperous commuity had been settled at Pengcheng modern XuzhouJiangsu.

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Jiuhua in China 's Anhui province. An Shigaoa Parthian Buddhist prince, arrived at the Han capital in and was the first to initiate a systematic translation of Buddhist texts into Chinese.

Traces of Buddhist iconography can also be seen in works of art from this period. Not only was their religion unknown but much of it seemed alien and amoral to Chinese sensibilites.

The origin and impact of the scripture in forty two sections in china

Concepts such as monasticism and individual spiritual enlightenment directly contradicted the core Confucian principles of family and emperor. Confucianism promoted social stability, order, strong families, and practical living.

Chinese officials questioned how a monk's personal attainment of nirvana benefited the empire. Buddhism was less antithetical to Daoismthe other major religion of China, but at its core Daoism sought harmony with the natural world while Buddhism sought to master the inner world.

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Thus obscure Indian sutras that advocated filial piety became core texts in China. Buddhism was made compatible with ancestor worship and participation in China's heirarchical system.

Works were written arguing that the salvation of an individual was a benefit to that individual's society and family and monks thus contributed to the greater good. It is conjectured that the shocking collapse of the Han Dynasty in and the resulting period of social upheaval and political unrest known as the Three Kingdoms period may have helped the spread of Buddhism.

Buddhism was a minor force, however, compared with Daoism which was directly associated with efforts to defy the emperor cf. The Daoist Zhang family self-governed the Hanzhong Commandry for nearly 20 years until invasion by the renowned Chinese warlord Cao Cao.

The origin and impact of the scripture in forty two sections in china

A reason for the lack of interest mostly stemmed from the ruling entity and gentry. All the rulers were Han Chinese and had simply never heard of or knew too little of the religion. The Nine-grade controller systemby which prominent individuals in each local administrative area were given the authority to rank local families and individuals in nine grades according to their potential for government service, further consolidated the importance of Confucianism.

Daoism too remained a strong force among the population and philosophers. Most rulers and population of the Wu, Hu, and the Northern dynasties originated from more than ten distinct ethnic groups including either non-Han Chinese "barbarians", or Han Chinese after generations of "barbarian" influence.

They did not propagate nor trust the combined philosophical concept of Confucianism and Daoism as zealously as their rivals in the south. Official support of Buddhism would eventually mould a new Chinese populace with a common ideology out of the diversely ethnic population, which would in turn consolidate these dynasties.

It is instructive that Buddhism propagated faster in northern China than in the south. Social upheaval in northern China worked to break down cultural barriers between the elite ruling families and the general populace, in contrast to the south where elite clans and royal families firmly monopolized politics.

Daoist and Confucian political ideology had long consolidated the political status of elite clans in the south.

Support of another religion would have unknown and possibly adverse effects, for which these clans would not risk their privileges.

Modern Chinese Buddhism

Furthermore pro-Buddhist policy would not be backed by the bureaucracy, which had been staffed by members of the clans. Southern rulers were in weaker positions to strive for their legitimacy - some were even installed by the clans.

It was not until the reign of Emperor Wu of the Liang Dynasty that saw the official support of Buddhism. Rebellion of Hou Jing near the end of Emperor Wu's reign wreaked havoc on the political and social privileges of the elite clans, which indirectly assisted the spread of Buddhism. But Buddhism spread pretty well in the peasant populace, both in the north and the south.

Arrivals of several prestigious monks in the early 5th century also contributed to the propagation of the religion and were welcomed by rulers of the Sixteen Kingdoms and Northern Dynasties.PART OF OUR IDENTITY as Anglicans is the tradition and history of our church and our this page we have collected links to web sites that focus on Anglican and Episcopal history, its people, and its buildings.

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We began the story of Paul in Ephesus in the last post, and today we continue Luke’s narrative of that two-year period. This passage (Acts ) opens with the Jewish leadership in Ephesus already having hardened their heart, and Paul having withdrawn from the synagogue to the school of Tyrannus with those who had believed.

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Buddhism in China - Academic Kids